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Each tooth in a jaw has a root canal system located in the center of the tooth (in each root). Once it is infected by bacteria, root canal treatment is needed. So, what is a root canal? This treatment is also called endodontics or endodontic treatment. It allows a decayed or infected tooth to be repaired and saved by eliminating the bacteria from the infected root canals. Patients usually see the dentist when they feel pain in the teeth and, in the majority of cases, the reason for the excruciating pain is the infection. This can only be resolved by endodontic treatment or extraction. It should be noted that if patients visit a dentist regularly every year and maintain proper oral hygiene, root canal treatment could probably be avoided. Despite this, the American Association of Endodontics estimates that there are over 15 million root canal treatments performed every year and we hope that in this article, you will find all the important information regarding endodontic treatment.
The dental pulp is a term strongly linked to root canal treatment because this is the area where the treatment takes place. Generally, the dental pulp is the central part of a tooth structure, as illustrated below:
Pulp belongs to the endodontium, which is the dentin-pulp complex. The structure of pulp, as explained in an article for “News Medical” is developed from neural cells in the fetus. These cells concentrate and form dental papilla. The pulp is surrounded by a layer of protective cells. It has also a rich nerve structure and a large number of blood vessels. When root canal treatment is performed, the dental pulp is completely removed. The hard chamber that surrounds the pulp usually protects it from infections but when the tooth becomes decayed or the dentine and enamel are damaged by cracks, injury, dental caries, or fractures, this chamber erodes away and cavities or holes are formed, which exposes the pulp to microbes, some food or extreme temperatures and as a result, cause toothache. As the infection progresses, the pulp is at risk of becoming necrotic. In addition, the surrounding tissues and root structure may become infected as well, which causes jaw bone or root infections.
The number of root canals varies depending on the tooth. The table below shows the number of roots and canals for both upper and lower teeth:
The usual number of roots
The usual number of canals for a tooth
7, 8, 9, 10
1 or 2
1, 2, 3, 14, 15, 16
3 or more (usually 3 or 4)
23, 24, 25, 26
20, 21, 28, 29
17, 18, 19, 30, 31, 32
3 or more (usually 3 or 4)
So, summarising the above, all the front teeth, that is upper and lower central and lateral incisors, as well as canines (called also cuspids or canine teeth), have only one root. On the back teeth, the upper 1st premolars have two roots, 2nd premolars have one or two roots and all lower premolar teeth have one root only. The upper molars usually have three roots and lower ones – two roots.
The above rules can vary and dentists are aware of this and always check before starting the treatment. The main variants are:
The number of canals is not visible to the naked eye, so a dentist always performs an x-ray or RVG of the infected tooth to see how many canals it actually has. However, even these examinations do not guarantee the clear image of a tooth inside, and then specialists need to perform tomography or microscope treatment.
Generally, regular dental check-ups will allow the endodontist to identify any tooth decay or gum disease and treat it before the root system becomes infected. However, people often forget about their check-ups and only toothache reminds them of the necessity to visit a dentist. Below are the main conditions and signs that root canal treatment may be needed.
Pulpitis refers to pulp tissue inflammation – a response to tissue irritation or injury. There are cases where the inflammation is so severe that it becomes irreversible. This means that the pulp tissue has been damaged to such an extent that it cannot be repaired or recovered. Problems leading to irreversible pulpitis, and consequently to root canal treatment, are:
The most common sign of this problem is pain caused by an irritating stimulus, e.g. hot and cold (the problem of sensitive teeth) and/or postural change (for instance lying down or bending over). Such pain does not disappear when the stimulus is removed but rather endures for a longer time. There are also cases where the pain appears without any stimulus and is accompanied by gum infection.
The term “necrotic pulp” means that the pulp tissue has died. It is the final stage of tooth decay where a tooth is fully exposed to all bacteria and debris and is not protected by anything or it may appear regardless of the decay, as a result of some injury or trauma. The signs of this deterioration in the state of the tooth are:
Root canal treatment may be needed when bad teeth have been broken or cracked in such a way that the area near the pulp tissue is also affected. The usual causes for this type of damage are eating solid food (e.g. hard candies), an injury (e.g. an accident), unforeseen items in meals (e.g. a bone), or teeth grinding and clenching. Teeth, post-dental treatment like fillings, are more vulnerable to such events. Once a tooth has been injured in a way described above, it is:
This pain is very characteristic because it is almost impossible to attribute it to a single tooth to get toothache relief. It radiates to a greater area in the mouth.
Sometimes, a dentist makes the decision to compromise the pulp when he performs a more serious treatment. It happens when a badly misaligned tooth is crowned, overdenture abutments are installed or there is a need for a root amputation. Then, root canal treatment precedes other dental treatments.
This problem can be very uncomfortable for people who do not always realize that it can be treated and do not know how to get rid of the toothache. Firstly, dentists try applying less invasive solutions such as fluoride or other compounds as a toothache cure, but if this does not work, root canal treatment is an effective solution that eliminates the problem of tooth sensitivity and sore gums (swollen gums).
It refers to the situations where the dental pulp is denuded (exposed) accidentally or as a result of tooth decay. It makes a tooth extremely sensitive even to the most gentle factors and causes a huge discomfort and pain.
Root canal treatment involves four stages, which, on completion, can restore a heavily infected tooth. The root canal procedure time and the number of visits vary depending on the tooth type, its condition, and the number of root canals, but usually, there are one or two visits. A tooth x-ray will allow a dentist to give an estimated length of time the treatment may take, however, the exact number of visits is determined only after the dentist has opened the tooth and seen the roots. Generally, the front teeth are treated quicker than the back ones because their canals are straight and wide and it is relatively easy to access them. Below are the general root canal procedure steps.
Once a dentist takes the x-ray and has a general idea of what to expect in the tooth and how to plan the treatment, he administers a local anaesthetic which numbs the tooth as well as the surrounding tissue. Then, the tooth is isolated so that it has no direct contact with any teeth. For isolation, dentists may use various materials and forms. However, the British Endodontic Society recommends using a rubber dam (called a dental dam) which perfectly fits around a tooth protecting its interior from the bacteria in saliva but still permitting normal swallowing during the treatment. It is thought to have made a great contribution to the success of root canal treatment and every dentist should aim to use it. Moreover, if a tooth has been filled before, the filling must be removed and all pulpal walls need to be reconstructed. It might happen that a tooth is damaged so badly that even a root canal cannot save it and the extraction is necessary.
When the tooth is numbed and isolated, a dentist moves on to open it up. The so-called “access cavity” (a hole in a tooth), which is made with the use of a dental drill, permits access to the pulp chamber and the root system. Dentists need to locate all the canals, which are thin and curved, and make sure that the whole infected material is visible. Often, they have to use a special microscope and a very bright light to examine the tooth inside.
After opening a tooth, a dentist moves on to deep teeth cleaning and disinfecting them by removing the pulp tissue and all the contaminants, such as debris and bacteria. Firstly, the dentist measures the length of each root canal, usually using Xray and electronic devices. It is important to precisely clean the infected area and avoid irritating the healthy tissue. Then, the canals are cleaned, enlarged and shaped with the use of several little files (they look like pins). These files break up and separate the tissue and debris from the inside and the walls of a tooth. During the tooth-cleaning process, the dentists also irrigate the tooth using antibacterial liquid (such as physiological saline, sodium hypochlorite, citric acid, or chlorhexidine) to remove all the loose debris. Tooth irrigation is an extremely important part of tooth cleaning and is done many times at this stage. If the treatment is very complex and cannot be completed in one visit, the dentist fills the tooth roots with a medication (called a root canal temporary filling) that kills all the remaining bacteria and puts in a temporary filling material as protection between the tooth cleaning visits.
The cleaned, shaped and widened canals are then prepared for the tooth filling. The dentist uses a gutta-percha material. It is a thermoplastic material, which, when heated, becomes soft and perfectly fits inside the chamber. It is extremely important that the entire cavity of the root canal is filled because otherwise, the tooth may get re-infected. When the material solidifies and the canals are filled, the root canal treatment is finished and restoration of the visible part of the tooth follows. Usually, the dentist fills and restores the rest of the tooth with a filling material. Nowadays, dentists advise restoring a tooth after a root canal with prosthetic works, such as crowns, denture adhesive, inlay, onlay or overlay. Of course, regular fillings are also used, but they are less and less popular.
A crown is a cover or tooth cap which replaces the tooth. It restores the shape, size, color, and function of the tooth. After root canal treatment, a tooth may be too fragile to function normally and could break or fracture very easily. Dental crowns eliminate these problems. They may be made from ceramic, metal, porcelain or powdered glass materials or a mix of metal and porcelain.
A dentist begins the procedure of dental crown after root canal treatment by taking impressions of the tooth to prepare a mold. This mold is then used to create a perfectly shaped and sized crown. In most places, it takes a few days to create a crown, however, there are dental surgeries/clinics where crowns are offered as a one-day procedure. When the crown is ready, it is glued to the crown-root inlay which is put after the root canal.
The main problem with the root canal recovery is the delayed root canal pain relief. Patients have usually experienced severe pain before they end up in the dentist’s office, so it is natural that they want it to disappear as soon as possible. The anaesthesia eases off a few hours after the procedure, and patients may feel slight pain and sensitivity after that. However, regular painkillers (like ibuprofen or paracetamol) should help. The discomfort improves within a few days. If it doesn’t, patients are advised to visit a dentist to check the cause of the pain. When patients decide to have a crown on a treated tooth, they are provided with a temporary filling, which requires special care, before the crown is created. Such a filling is quite fragile, so it is not recommended to bite hard and/or eat sticky food or to put too much pressure on the treated tooth. Of course, patients have to take proper care of their teeth to prevent any possible tooth damage. This includes brushing teeth at least twice a day, daily flossing, regular professional cleans in the dental surgery/clinic, and check-ups every year.
Root canal treatment aftercare is really important to achieve the best possible outcome as well as speed up the root canal recovery time.
We advise patients to:
Root canal treatment is a routine procedure and in fact, every dentist can perform it. It is also very effective and means that the infected tooth can be saved. However, it does affect the tooth structure, so aftercare is vital. If patients ignore their dentists’ suggestions concerning aftercare, they could lose the tooth (if it subsequently splits or fractures). If it fractures below the gums, rebuilding it is impossible and the tooth will have to be extracted. In addition, it is strongly advised that patients quit smoking to improve their oral health and speed up the recovery after root canal therapy and crown placement. We hope everyone realises the destructive effects that smoking has on the health, appearance and general condition of the teeth, so root canal treatment may provide the motivation and drive to give it up. Finally, the treated tooth should not hurt or cause any discomfort at all, so if patients have a fever, feel that the filling has fallen out, feel pain when biting down or the tooth is cracked or broken, they should contact their dentist.
Eating just after root canal treatment is a significant part of the recovery and deserves mentioning. The American Association of Endodontics (AAE) emphasizes that eating soft food after the treatment prevents accidentally biting the mouth inside or irritating the sensitive mouth area.
The AAE suggests what to eat after the root canal. Patients recovering from root canal treatment are advised to eat the following soft food:
Some other food recommendations include: fruit smoothies, milkshakes, mangos, pears, peaches, mashed potatoes, rice pudding, sushi, pancakes, hummus, cheese, most Chinese, Thai and Indian food is also suggested.
Food that may cause the crown or filling to come off or crack should be avoided, of course. Chewing sticky food may dislodge a temporary crown, and eating hard candies or ice can chip even a porcelain crown. If there are some nerves left in the treated tooth, it will be particularly sensitive and tender so patients should be careful about the temperature of the food they eat. Foods that should be avoided include:
The extreme temperature of food and drink may trigger the sensitivity around the restored area, so patients should always pay attention to this aspect. During recovery, patients should also avoid spicy food (which causes sensitivity and discomfort) and alcohol (which increases bleeding).
The root canal success rate and its effectiveness depends on such factors as diagnosis (the condition of the pulp just before the treatment), anatomy of the root canal system (the success and effects are much more difficult to achieve where the canal system is very complex), proper tooth restoration (if a crown is placed after too long a time, there may be a leakage to the canals), maintaining oral hygiene, and the general condition of the other teeth (e.g. malocclusion, misalignment, or parafunction).
Root canal treatment belongs to the group of highly successful procedures. Almost 90% of treatments last for at least 9-10 years. Of course, a patient’s care and oral hygiene play a key role in the effectiveness and durability of the treatment. The effects may last longer, even for a lifetime, especially for those who do not smoke. Sometimes people have root canal problems with a treated tooth and it is necessary to perform secondary root canal treatment to save it or the dentist may suggest some alternatives like extraction or implantation. The specialist’s skills and expertise can also influence the effectiveness of the root canal treatment. We are not diminishing the services of regular dentists here, but it is indisputable that endodontists (certified specialists in root canal treatment) perform excellent root canal treatment with minimal instances of failure. Thus, if you are looking for the best specialist treatment, it would be best to choose an endodontist.
Root canal treatment is a procedure aimed at repairing the infected and damaged tooth without extracting it completely. During the treatment, a dentist removes the damaged inside of the tooth, then thoroughly cleans and disinfects the remaining part and finally fills it with the material. So, in root canal treatment, only the damaged root is removed. On the other hand, extraction involves removing the entire tooth from its socket in the bone. Dentists do not extract a tooth if there are alternative treatments. Extraction is treated as a last resort. So, the dentist has to carefully evaluate the tooth and make the decision whether to save it or remove it. The common reason for extraction is the damaged tooth structure. If the crack or cavity in a tooth is so deep that it reaches far below the gum line thereby causing a serious weakness of the tooth, then extraction is recommended. However, if it is only the pulp that is compromised, this can be removed without extracting the whole tooth thanks to root canal treatment.
It is worth mentioning that extraction has two forms – simple and surgical. A simple extraction is performed under local anesthetic. The dentist firstly uses a dental instrument called an elevator to loosen a tooth, and then removes the tooth with forceps. A surgical extraction takes place when a tooth is not visible because it has broken off, has not cut through the gum yet or is impacted. Such a tooth is extracted by an oral surgeon and the recovery takes a longer time. Regardless of the method, when a tooth has been extracted, a patient is left with a hole in their mouth which might cause some discomfort, especially if the tooth is in a visible place. Hence, dentists advise implantation as a solution. A dental implant replaces both a root and a crown of a tooth, and as a result, guarantees an aesthetic look and fulfills all the functions of a natural tooth.
Complications after root canal treatment are rare, but it’s good to be aware of them. Properly identified, post-treatment problems are effectively solved by dentists. The most frequent ones are presented below.
Root canal treatment requires a deep cleaning of the root canals, so the nearby gum area and surrounding nerves are often irritated. So, moderate post root canal pain lasting a few days after the procedure is normal and should not be a worry. The procedure itself is not painful thanks to a local anaesthetic. After this wears off (usually after several hours), patients may feel tooth sensitivity and a mild root canal pain in the treated area, so it is recommended to take painkillers. It is also important that patients do not expose themselves to any greater pain by e.g. eating hard food or smoking just after the treatment. Over time, the pain should wear off. If it doesn’t, it is necessary to visit a dentist again. Sometimes, pain is an indicator of the need for more cleaning appointments. Some teeth can be cleaned during one visit, but for some – up to two or three sessions are essential. Moreover, if the pain when breathing remains at the same level or intensifies, patients must visit a dentist who will either prescribe a stronger root canal pain remedy or perform an alternative treatment (or a revision root canal). Summing up the problem of pain, patients should remember that root canal treatment is performed to eliminate pain. The first few days are considered as recovery and throbbing pain may exist, however, it should be reasonably tolerable. So, if the pain returns, a patient should visit a dentist as soon as possible.
A crack in a tooth which extends to the root of a tooth is easily reached and colonised by bacteria. While the root canals can be cleaned, the tiny spaces formed by any cracks cannot be cleaned. This means that if the bacteria reach these spaces, they cannot be completely removed and the tissues surrounding the roots are constantly irritated. Coping with the problem of cracks is difficult mainly because of two factors. Firstly, a dentist might not be aware of the existence of a crack or underestimate the cracks that are visible. Secondly, the cracks that are not treated often cause root canal treatment failure. In the majority of cases, the only way to solve the crack problem is a tooth extraction or a root amputation (for teeth with more than one root).
This refers to permanent restoration after root canal treatment, which is the last stage of this procedure. A defective or inadequate restoration will not fulfil its protective function and “invites” bacteria, germs and other contaminants to enter the inside of the tooth again. This malfunction is called a coronal leakage. It is estimated that it accounts for 13% of failed root canal treatments. Once the roots get re-infected, there is a need to perform a secondary root canal procedure in order to provide an adequate seal. Usually, the coronal leakage can be prevented when the permanent restoration is attached very shortly after root canal treatment. Whether it is in the form of a filling or crown, it needs to cover a tooth and block its interior tightly and thoroughly. So, patients should pay attention to the dentist’s skills and reviews when choosing their clinic/surgery and make sure that only high-quality materials used.
The inner sealing material and its integrity inside a tooth play a major role in the success
of root canal treatment. It forms a barrier for the bacteria and contaminants, which protects the cleaned canals from being re-infected. This material fills the root canals and its amount has to perfectly fit the canal size. If there is too much or too little sealing material in a canal, the canal is not fully protected and bacteria can get inside easily. Also, it is possible that over time, the seal deteriorates. This happens, not because of an imprecise filling or uncovered cracks, but because the material simply wears out. It is estimated that root canal treatment lasts for 5-10 years (of course, it depends on the quality of work and a patient’s care), so patients must be aware that there may come a time for re-treatment.
Usually, root canal treatment involves treating only one canal even if a tooth has a complex root canal system. If more than one canal is infected and a dentist overlooks this, it is certain that a patient will still feel root canal pain and the tooth will require further treatment soon. Root canal treatment on the same tooth is more complicated because a dentist has to remove the filling material and crown to get inside the tooth and fix the canal system. Such a problem appears mainly in molars because they tend to have more canals than roots. The most effective prevention of this complication comes down to the dentist and his/her skills. Once a tooth is opened correctly and there is clear access to the inside of the tooth and its canals, there is no chance that the dentist can overlook any canal. But, an inadequate tooth opening means that not everything inside is visible and the treatment will probably be incomplete and ineffective.
Root canal treatment is performed for badly infected and damaged teeth. Its aim is to save a tooth. However, when the infection is so deep that it cannot be saved, the dentist will suggest some alternative treatments like tooth extraction and implantation. Sometimes, patients also choose to leave a tooth as it is without any treatment.
Both tooth extraction and root canal treatment are solutions for teeth which cannot be healed with a simple drill and fill because the damage and infection are too extensive. Root canal aims to save a tooth from extraction and is performed when the pulp is damaged and diseased to a great extent or when the pulp is even dead. However, the rest of the tooth must be in a relatively good condition and be worth saving, otherwise, the dentist might suggest removing a tooth, but this is always the last resort. It is safer to extract a tooth which is seriously damaged both inside and outside than to treat it with a root canal. Undoubtedly, the recovery after extraction (healing, bleeding and pain) lasts longer than after root canal because the treatment is more complex. However, a patient does have some solutions for replacing the tooth, so no-one should be left toothless. So, it is always good to listen to the dentist and his suggestions regarding the treatment type.
Doing nothing is actually more of refraining from performing a dental treatment than leaving the problem as it is. There are many supporters of the idea that food choices affect oral health. They believe that tooth infection can be healed through a proper diet. This means the elimination of sugar and all meals containing it as well as all grain products. However, although this solution will serve as a good preventative measure, it will not heal a deeply infected and damaged tooth. What is more, there are people who avoid dentists because of fear, shame about their teeth, or some other reasons and when they have a severe toothache, they opt for painkillers or root canal infection antibiotics and many people will even keep taking them for weeks or months. This will solve the effects of the infection i.e. the pain, but has no effect on the cause of the pain and will therefore never heal a tooth.
Implantation is a follow-up treatment after tooth extraction. If a tooth is damaged too badly to be saved and a dentist decides to perform an extraction, a patient may decide afterward to have a dental implant as a tooth replacement. An implant replaces a whole tooth (root and crown) and is often recommended where complete teeth are missing. The implant not only fulfills an aesthetic function but also prevents gums from receding, enables proper chewing and biting and improves phonation and pronunciation. Once placed, dental implants last for years. For many people it is even a lifetime solution, so, without a doubt, it is worth considering this investment. A dentist can place an implant immediately after extraction (on the same visit). Often though, it is more common to wait at least 3 months before implantation so that the gums can heal properly after the tooth extraction.
Private root canal costs in the UK vary depending on several factors, such as:
Of course, all clinics will list the cost of root canal treatment in their price lists. However, patients need to know that these prices are never final. The prices for root canal grow proportionately according to the number of root canals. A dentist will probably not give the patient the final price before examining the damaged tooth and taking an x-ray to assess its condition. So, patients, by all means, can obtain average prices in various clinics (by calling them or checking the price list on a website), but for their own final price, they need to visit physically visit a dentist.
In the UK, the average prices for root canal treatment range from £100 to £350 for the front teeth and from £350 to £700 for the back teeth. Patients always need to check what this price includes because there are clinics where the initial consultation, x-rays and require are counted as extras and will require an additional payment.
Prices may vary in different cities. Below you can find a cost comparison prepared by WhatClinic in 2016.
Newcastle Upon Tyne
The NHS fees are grouped into 3 bands:
So, the NHS cost for a root canal is £62.10 in England (in Wales it is £45.00). This price remains unchanged even if more than one tooth is treated and more than one visit is needed. It is also possible to get a crown on the NHS, however, this would be the band 3 price, which is £269.30 (£195 in Wales). Many dentists provide root canal NHS or private treatments, so it is important to ask whether NHS treatment is possible and make sure how much it would cost.
For patients who cannot afford private root canal treatment in the UK and who are not qualified for NHS treatment (because there is no such dentist, the available dates are too remote, or the work needed is too extensive), there is an alternative, which is medical tourism – obtaining the treatment abroad. The top 3 countries for medical tourism are Poland, Hungary, and Turkey. The advantages of going abroad for treatment include:
Patients can arrange treatment abroad either directly with the clinic they have found or with the help of medical travel agencies. In fact, there are many such agencies that offer clinics in a variety of countries and whose assistance is free. The advantage of the use of an agency over booking direct is that the agencies work with multiple clinics and can ask all of them for advice and a cost in order to choose the most affordable option for their customer as well as offering help with flight bookings and the organization of a hotel, transfers, etc. So, the patient needs to do nothing because everything is organized by the agency.
Among patients from the UK (also from the USA, Germany and Scandinavian countries), the most popular destinations for dental treatments are Poland and Turkey.
Below is a price comparison for several countries:
Usually, the prices for root canal treatment in Poland are about 75% lower than in the UK. Most clinics are equipped with modern microscopes (laser teeth cleaning), which means that the whole treatment can be performed in only one day. The biggest cities, such as Warsaw, Cracow, Gdansk, and Wroclaw, have direct flight connections with multiple cities in the UK, Norway, Sweden, Germany, and many more European countries and even with the USA. This means fast and cheap trave which usually lasts only 2-3 hours. Also, Poland is a beautiful, historically-rich country. Patients can get their root canal treatment in Poland in a city by the Baltic sea, near the Tatra mountains or in other beautiful regions. Regardless of the city, patients will have the opportunity to visit interesting places, see history, try the traditional Polish cuisine and simply relax. Poland is also a very safe country – the political situation is stable, there are no riots or conflicts and the people are open to tourists (there are over 18 million tourists visiting Poland every year).
Turkey is a country with the lowest prices for root canal treatment. There are many high-standard clinics with an excellent service, but there are also some questionable places, so patients must thoroughly check the clinic and dentist in Turkey so that they are not disappointed upon arrival. However, more and more clinics do meet European standards and offer as good a service as in Western European countries. Another great asset for Turkey is its location and tourism development. Turkey is one of the top countries for holidays, at the same time being one of the cheapest ones. Here, we would also advise customers to use medical tourism agency services. By using these services, patients are sure that they will go to a renowned clinic with a skilled specialist as well as being able to take advantage of additional services like accommodation and transfers. With regard to flights, the main Turkish cities have well-developed connections to European cities. The one aspect that might discourage people from visiting Turkey is its unstable political situation and earlier terrorist attacks. However, at present nothing worrying is happening and annually, the country welcomes millions of tourists, including those undertaking root canal treatment in Turkey.
Root canal treatment is one of the most popular dental treatments. It is needed when a nerve and blood supply (called a pulp) is badly infected. Usually, patients feel pain or notice that a tooth darkens at the final stage of damage, so only root canal treatment plus dental crown or extraction plus implantation are the options. There is good news for those who cannot afford treatment, as there is the possibility of getting root canal work done on the NHS or to go abroad for the procedure (patients usually choose Poland, Hungary and Turkey as medical tourism destinations). Of course, whether a root canal treatment is required depends, most importantly, on how well a patient looks after their dental care. Following a healthy diet (avoiding sweets), maintaining proper oral hygiene and attending dental check-up visits (preferably twice a year) will allow you to keep a healthy, hygienic and aesthetic smile.
NHS Choices, NHS, https://www.nhs.uk/common-health-questions/dental-health/how-much-will-i-pay-for-nhs-dental-treatment/.
Mandal, Ananya. “What Is Dental Pulp?” News, 28 June 2019, https://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Dental-Pulp.aspx.
“Endodontists: the Root Canal Specialists.” American Association of Endodontists, 5 Dec. 2019, https://www.aae.org/specialty/.
Johnson, W.t. “Endodontic Treatment Outcomes in a Large Patient Population in the USA: An Epidemiological Study.” Yearbook of Dentistry, vol. 2006, 2006, pp. 263–265., doi:10.1016/s0084-3717(08)70208-3
Religioni, Urszula, and Mateusz Religioni. “Medical Tourism Trends in Poland.” Medical and Biological Sciences, vol. 29, no. 2, 2015, p. 63., doi:10.12775/mbs.2015.020.
Management Association, Information Resources. “Medical Tourism: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice.” IGI Global, 2018. 1-378. Web. 11 Dec 2019. doi:10.4018/978-1-5225-3920-9.
“WhatClinic • Healthcare & Beauty • Read Reviews & Compare Prices.” WhatClinic.com, https://www.whatclinic.com/.
Klaudia has been working for a medical tourism company as a patient advisor for years. She has been helping a lot of patients from the UK, the USA, Scandinavia and many other countries. She knows very well foreign patients needs and she does her best to help them.
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